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Sunday, August 21, 2011

[AlternativeAnswers] Alzheimer's disease - a neurospirochetosis. Analysis of the evidence following


J Neuroinflammation. 2011 Aug 4;8(1):90. [Epub ahead of print]

Alzheimer's disease - a neurospirochetosis. Analysis of the evidence
following Koch's and Hill's criteria.

Miklossy J.


ABSTRACT: It is established that chronic spirochetal infection can cause
slowly progressive dementia, brain atrophy and amyloid deposition in
late neurosyphilis. Recently it has been suggested that various types of
spirochetes, in an analogous way to Treponema pallidum, could cause
dementia and may be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease
(AD). Here, we review all data available in the literature on the
detection of spirochetes in AD and critically analyze the association
and causal relationship between spirochetes and AD following established
criteria of Koch and Hill. The results show a statistically significant
association between spirochetes and AD (P = 1.5 x 10-17, OR = 20, 95% CI
= 8-60, N = 247). When neutral techniques recognizing all types of
spirochetes were used, or the highly prevalent periodontal pathogen
Treponemas were analyzed, spirochetes were observed in the brain in more
than 90% of AD cases. Borrelia burgdorferi was detected in the brain in
25.3% of AD cases analyzed and was 13 times more frequent in AD compared
to controls. Periodontal pathogen Treponemas (T. pectinovorum, T.
amylovorum, T. lecithinolyticum, T. maltophilum, T. medium, T.
socranskii) and Borrelia burgdorferi were detected using species
specific PCR and antibodies. Importantly, co-infection with several
spirochetes occurs in AD. The pathological and biological hallmarks of
AD were reproduced in vitro. The analysis of reviewed data following
Koch's and Hill's postulates shows a probable causal relationship
between neurospirochetosis and AD. Persisting inflammation and amyloid
deposition initiated and sustained by chronic spirochetal infection form
together with the various hypotheses suggested to play a role in the
pathogenesis of AD a comprehensive entity. As suggested by Hill, once
the probability of a causal relationship is established prompt action is
needed. Support and attention should be given to this field of AD
research. Spirochetal infection occurs years or decades before the
manifestation of dementia. As adequate antibiotic and anti-inflammatory
therapies are available, as in syphilis, one might prevent and eradicate

[PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

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