FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2009 Dec;57(3):203-13. Epub 2009 Aug 6.
Pathogen translocation across the blood-brain barrier.
Pulzova L, Bhide MR, Andrej K.
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Veterinary
Medicine, Kosice, Slovakia.
Neurological manifestations caused by neuroinvading pathogens are
typically attributed to penetration of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and invasion
of the central nervous system. However, the mechanisms used by many
pathogens (such as Borrelia) to traverse the BBB are still unclear. Recent studies
revealed that microbial translocation across the BBB must involve a
repertoire of microbial-host interactions (receptor-ligand interactions). However,
the array of interacting molecules responsible for the borrelial
translocation is not yet clearly known. Pathogens bind several host molecules
(plasminogen, glycosaminoglycans, factor H, etc.) that might mediate endothelial
interactions in vivo. This review summarizes our current understanding of
the pathogenic mechanisms involved in the translocation of the BBB by
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