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Monday, May 23, 2011

[AlternativeAnswers] Babesiosis in dogs and cats-Expanding parasitological and clinical spectra.

 




Vet Parasitol. 2011 Apr 19. [Epub ahead of print]

Babesiosis in dogs and cats-Expanding parasitological and clinical
spectra.

Solano-Gallego L, Baneth G.

Department of Pathology and Infectious Diseases, Royal Veterinary
College of London, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hatfield, Herts AL9 7TA,
UK.

Abstract

Canine babesiosis caused by different Babesia species is a protozoal
tick-borne disease with worldwide distribution and global significance.
Historically, Babesia infection in dogs was identified based on the
morphologic appearance of the parasite in the erythrocyte. All large
forms of Babesia were designated Babesia canis, whereas all small forms
of Babesia were considered to be Babesia gibsoni. However, the
development of molecular methods has demonstrated that other Babesia
species such as Babesia conradae, Babesia microti like piroplasm,
Theileria spp. and a yet unnamed large form Babesia spp. infect dogs and
cause distinct diseases. Babesia rossi, B. canis and Babesia vogeli
previously considered as subspecies are identical morphologically but
differ in the severity of clinical manifestations which they induce,
their tick vectors, genetic characteristics, and geographic
distributions, and are therefore currently considered separate species.
The geographic distribution of the causative agent and thus the
occurrence of babesiosis are largely dependent on the habitat of
relevant tick vector species, with the exception of B. gibsoni where
evidence for dog to dog transmission indicates that infection can be
transmitted among fighting dog breeds independently of the limitations
of vector tick infestation. Knowledge of the prevalence and
clinicopathological aspects of Babesia species infecting dogs around the
world is of epidemiologic and medical interest. Babesiosis in domestic
cats is less common and has mostly been reported from South Africa where
infection is mainly due to Babesia felis, a small Babesia that causes
anemia and icterus. In addition, Babesia cati was reported from India
and sporadic cases of B. canis infection in domestic cats have been
reported in Europe, B. canis presentii in Israel and B. vogeli in
Thailand. Babesiosis caused by large Babesia spp. is commonly treated
with imidocarb dipropionate with good clinical response while small
Babesia spp. are more resistant to anti-babesial therapy. Clinical and
parasitological cure are often not achieved in the treatment of small
Babesia species infections and clinical relapses are frequent. The
spectrum of Babesia pathogens that infect dogs and cats is gradually
being elucidated with the aid of molecular techniques and meticulous
clinical investigation. Accurate detection and species recognition are
important for the selection of the correct therapy and prediction of the
course of disease.

Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

PMID:
21571435
[PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

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