*

Featured Post

Nutrition and Hormonal Balance

  Good Morning,  Nutrition and Hormonal Balance As an acupuncturist in the area of fertility, I realize tha...

Subscribe Updates via email

Subscribe Updates via email

Enter your email address:

Monday, March 12, 2012

[AlternativeAnswers] The Carotenoid Family: Lutein

 

Good Morning!

The Carotenoid Family: Lutein

Carotenoids, of which beta-carotenes are the most popular, are found in many fruits and vegetables, animals, plants and microorganisms. The body converts beta carotene into Vitamin A. Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin essential for vision, growth, cell division, reproduction and immunity. Among the 600 or more carotenoids in foods, beta-carotene, lycopene, and lutein are well-known leaders in the fight to reduce the damage from free radicals.

Lutein is another carotenoid found in vegetables and fruits. Lutein acts as an antioxidant, protecting cells against the damaging effects of free radicals. The central area of the retina in humans and primates is called the macula and contains lutein as the primary carotenoid.
Lutein acts to filter and shield harmful blue light from the eye and may decrease the risk of developing macular degeneration, the eye disease that afflicts one in three people over age 65. [20].

Smokers who consumed the most beta-carotene and flavonoids from food, also appeared to cut their Alzheimer's risk. [14]. Yet, smokers who take excessive beta carotene supplements may increase their risk of lung cancer. [33].

A recent study has also shown the risk of osteoperosis with excessive Vitamin A. Retinol is the direct form of vitamin A found in most multivitamins, cod liver oil, liver, fortified foods, and whole milk products. Dietary retinol is associated with fractures, beta carotene is not. Beta carotene, which is converted to Vitamin A by the body, is not associated with any increased risk of fracture. [34]. This study has shown that intake of vitamin A or beta carotene, can be best obtained by eating more red and yellow vegetables than taking supplements.

The recommended safe upper limit of retinol is 3000 mcg (9900 IU) per day. This includes all sources of retinol, including foods such as liver, dietary supplements such as cod liver oil and vitamin A supplements, fortified foods such as cereals, and multivitamins.

Foods high in carotenoids include red, orange, deep-yellow, and some dark-green leafy vegetables, such as tomatoes, carrots, cantaloupe, pumpkin, sweet potatoes, winter squash, brussel sprouts, spinach, kale and broccoli.

Andrew Pacholyk MS L.Ac
http://www.peacefulmind.com/anti-aging.htm
Therapies for healing
mind, body, spirit

Reference

14. Dr. Marianne J. Engelhart of the Erasmus Medical Center in
Rotterdam, the Netherlands: Those with the highest intake of vitamin
C and vitamin E from food appeared to be the least likely to develop
Alzheimer's disease. The Journal of the American Medical Association.
6/26/03
15. Meydani M. Vitamin E and prevention of heart disease in high-risk
patients. Nutr Rev 2000;58:278-81.
16. 1993, The New England Journal of Medicine published two
epidemiologic studies which found that people who took vitamin E
supplements had fewer deaths from heart disease.
17. Heinonen OP, Albanes D, Virtamo J, Taylor PR, Huttunen JK,
Hartman AM, Haapakoski J, Malila N, Rautalahti M, Ripatti S, Maenpaa
H, Teerenhovi L, Koss L, Virolainen M, Edwards BK. Prostate cancer
and supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene:
incidence and mortality in a controlled trial. Department of Public
Health, University of Helsinki, Finland. Journal National Cancer
Institute. 1998 Mar 18;90(6):440-6, 441-7.
18. Giovannucci E, Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA,
Willerr WC. Intake of carotenoids and retinol in relation to risk of
prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 87:1767-1776, 1995
19. Dorgan JF, Sowell A, Swanson CA, Potischman N, Miller R.
Schussler N, Stephenson HEJr. Relationships of serum carotenoids,
retinol, a-tocopherol and selenium with breast cancer risk: results
from a prospective study in Columbia, Missouri (United States).
Cancer Causes Control 9:89-97, 1998
20. Antioxidants and age-related macular degeneration. Age-Related
Macular Degeneration Study Group. Journal of the American Optometric
Association. January 1996--Vol 67, No. 1.
21. Farr SA, Poon HF, Dogrukol-Ak D, Drake J, Banks WA, Eyerman E,
Butterfield DA, Morley JE. "The antioxidants alpha-lipoic acid and N-
acetylcysteine reverse memory impairment and brain oxidative stress
in aged SAMP8 mice." Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center
(GRECC), VA Medical Center (151/JC), 915 N. Grand Boulevard, St.
Louis, MO 63109, USA.

22. Moini H, Packer L, Saris NE. Antioxidant and pro-oxidant
activities of alpha-lipoic acid and dihydrolipoic acid. Toxicol Appl
Pharmacol 2002 Jul 182:84-90

23. Lopez-Burillo S, Tan DX, Mayo JC, Sainz RM, Manchester LC, Reiter
RJ.
Melatonin, xanthurenic acid, resveratrol, EGCG, vitamin C and alpha-
lipoic acid differentially reduce oxidative DNA damage induced by
Fenton reagents: a study of their individual and synergistic
actions. Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and
Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Valladolid, Valladolid,
Spain. 2001

24. Gregory JF, 3rd. Ascorbic acid bioavailability in foods and
supplements. Nutr Rev. 1993;51(10):301-303.

25. DeRitter E. Physiologic availability of dehydro-L-ascorbic acid
and palmitoyl-L-ascorbic acid. Science. 1951;113:628-631.

26. Johnston CS, Luo B. Comparison of the absorption and excretion of
three commercially available sources of vitamin C. J Am Diet Assoc.
1994;94(7):779-781.

27. Padayatty SJ, Levine M. Reevaluation of ascorbate in cancer
treatment: emerging evidence, open minds and serendipity. Journal
American College Nutrition. 2000;19(4):423-425.

28. Boylan MT, Crockard AD, Duddy ME, Armstrong MA, McMillan SA,
Hawkins SA. Interferon-beta 1a administration results in a transient
increase of serum amyloid A protein and C-reactive protein:
comparison with other markers of inflammation. Immunology Letters
2001; 75: 191-197.
29. Kamal-Eldin A, Appelqvist LA. The chemistry and antioxidant
properties of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Lipids 1996;31:671�701
[review].

30. Kamat JP, Devasagayam TPA. Tocotrienols from palm oil as potent
inhibitors of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in rat brain
mitochondria. Neurosci Lett 1995;195:179�82.

31. Theriault A, Chao JT, Wang Q, et al. Tocotrienol: a review of its
therapeutic potential. Clin Biochem 1999;32:309�19 [review].

32. Suarna C, Hood RL, Dean RT, Stocker R. Comparative antioxidant
activity of tocotrienols and other natural lipid-soluble antioxidants
in a homogeneous system, and in rat and human lipoproteins. Biochim
Biophys Acta 1993;1166:163�70.

33. Albanes D, Heinonen OP, Taylor PR, Virtamo J, Edwards BK,
Rautalahti M, Hartman AM, Palmgren J, Freedman LS, Haapakoski J,
Barrett MJ, Pietinen P, Malila N, Tala E, Liippo K, Salomaa ER,
Tangrea JA, Teppo L, Askin FB, Taskinen E, Erozan Y, Greenwald P,
Huttunen JK. Beta Carotene and Lung Cancer., J Natl Cancer Inst.
1996 Nov 6;88(21):1560-70.

34. Serum retinol levels and the risk of fracture. K. Micha�son, H.
Lithell, B. Vessby, et al., New Engl J Med, 2003, vol. 348, pp. 287�
294

35. Burke BE, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled
trial of coenzyme Q10 in isolated systolic hypertension. South Med J
2001 Nov;94(11):1112-7.

36. Watts GF, et al. Coenzyme Q(10) improves endothelial dysfunction
of the brachial artery in Type II diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia
2002 Mar;45(3):420-6.
37. Ebadi M, Govitrapong P, Sharma S, Muralikrishnan D, Shavali S,
Pellett L, Schafer R, Albano C, Eken J. Ubiquinone (coenzyme q10)
and mitochondria in oxidative stress of parkinson's disease. Biol
Signals Recept 2001 May-Aug;10(3-4):224-53
38. Tran MT, Mitchell TM, Kennedy DT, Giles JT. Role of coenzyme Q10
in chronic heart failure, angina, and hypertension. Pharmacotherapy
2001 Jul;21(7):797-806
39. Singh RB, Niaz MA Genetic variation and nutrition in relation to
coronary artery disease. J Assoc Physicians India 1999 Dec;47
(12):1185-90
40. Langsjoen H, Langsjoen P, Langsjoen P, Willis R, Folkers K.
Usefulness of coenzyme Q10 in clinical cardiology: a long-term study.
Mol Aspects Med 1994;15 Suppl:s165-75
41. Langsjoen PH, Langsjoen PH, Folkers K. Isolated diastolic
dysfunction of the myocardium and its response to CoQ10 treatment.
Clin Investig 1993;71(8 Suppl):S140-4
42. Overvad K, Diamant B, Holm L, Holmer G, Mortensen SA, Stender S.
Coenzyme Q10 in health and disease.Eur J Clin Nutr 1999 Oct;53
(10):764-70
43. Beck J, et al: Periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease. J
Periodontal 67 (suppl): 1123-1137,1996.
44. Shults CW, Oakes D, Kieburtz K, Beal MF, Haas R, Plumb S, Juncos
JL, Nutt J, Shoulson I, Carter J, Kompoliti K, Perlmutter JS, Reich
S, Stern M, Watts RL, Kurlan R, Molho E, Harrison M, Lew M; Parkinson
Study Group. Effects of coenzyme Q10 in early Parkinson disease:
evidence of slowing of the functional decline. Arch Neurol 2002 Oct;59
(10):1541-50

__._,_.___
Recent Activity:
*********************************************
Peacefulmind.com Sponsors Alternative Answers-

HEALING NATURALLY- Learn preventative and curative measure to take for many ailments at:

http://www.peacefulmind.com/ailments.htm
____________________________________________

-To INVITE A FRIEND to our healing community, copy and paste this address in an email to them:

http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/AlternativeAnswers/subs_invite

___________________________________________
To ADD A LINK, RESOURCE, OR WEBSITE to Alternative Answers please Go to:

http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/AlternativeAnswers/links

_____________________________________________
Community email addresses:
  Post message: AlternativeAnswers@yahoogroups.com
  Subscribe:    AlternativeAnswers-subscribe@yahoogroups.com
  Unsubscribe:  AlternativeAnswers-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
  List owner:   AlternativeAnswers-owner@yahoogroups.com
_________________________________________
Shortcut URL to this page:
  http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/AlternativeAnswers
.

__,_._,___
Post a Comment